A properly designed and constructed building is critical to protecting collections over the long term. Building projects are complex, made even more so for housing cultural collections where strict environmental conditions are required. Preservation knowledge and technology are therefore critical concerns during construction or renovation. It is likely that many preservation issues will be unfamiliar to architects and engineers involved with the process. Cultural institutions must be able to communicate their needs in discussion with a range of professionals, including engineers, architects, and various contractors, if they are to ensure the best design and performance of a facility.
The following bibliography has been compiled to help libraries, archives, and museums with the design and construction of their buildings. In addition to material on planning, there is information on environmental guidelines, security features, disaster prevention, the safe movement of collections, and the use of proper furnishings. Many of the items cited will have their own bibliographies, and can be consulted for further references where more in-depth research is required.
All citations are briefly annotated. The annotation is provided by NEDCC or is preceded by a reference to the source. Full references are listed at the end of this leaflet. The text is broken down into the following:
Briggs, James R. "Preservation Factors in the Design of New Libraries: A Building Services Engineer's Viewpoint." In Conservation and Preservation in Small Libraries.Ed. Nicholas Hadgraft and Katherine Swift. Cambridge, England: Parker Library Publications, 1994,pp. 49-69. Introduction:
"The objective of this paper is to consider the methods of environmental control at different efficacy and cost to suggest that it may be possible to reduce the installation, energy and maintenance costs without the need for air conditioning or at least without mechanical cooling."
Cohen, Aaron, and Elaine Cohen. Designing and Space Planning for Libraries: A Behavioral Guide. New York: Bowker, 1979. Larsen:
"Dated, but still relevant guide to designing libraries from a behavioral standpoint. Excellent chapter on lighting, HVAC and environmental factors."
Conrad, Ernest A. "The Dews and Don'ts of Insulating." Old House Journal 24.3 (1996): 36-41. Kerschner & Baker:
"Accurate information on how to safely insulate and ventilate an old house, [including] practical climate control considerations."
Craddock, Ann Brooke. "Control of Temperature and Humidity in Small Collections." In Conservation Concerns. Ed. Konstanze Bachmann, pp. 15-22. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1992.
A brief well rounded introduction to climate control.
Dahlgren, Anders C., and Erla P. Heyns. Planning Library Buildings: A Select Bibliography. 4th ed. Chicago: American Library Association, June 1995.
Edwards, Heather M. University Library Building Planning. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1990. Book News, Inc.:
Edwards (U. of Witwatersrand) provides information and ideas on physical planning for those who are considering building a new library or an extension. She gives an overview of factors influencing change in libraries and looks at the qualities desirable in any good building. A chapter on space standards provides the planner with a useful base from which to develop a program. Case studies of successful library buildings are drawn from the US, the UK, and South Africa. (Annotation copyright Book News, Inc. Portland, OR).
Freifeld, Roberta, and Caryl Masyr. Space Planning. Washington, D.C.: Special Libraries Association, 1991.
Although preservation concerns are not well addressed, information on evaluating the existing building prior to renovation will prove useful.
Gibson, Scott. "Air and Vapor Barriers." Fine Homebuilding 88 (1994): 48-53. Kerschner & Baker:
"An excellent article explaining how air and vapor barriers work. Most useful for new construction, but important to understanding why a historic building without vapor and air barriers could be harmed by high RH."
Grant, Christopher L. "Construction Instruction." Museum News 69.4 (July/August 1990): 55-57.
Simple guidelines for developing a construction contract to help ensure that an institution gets the building it expected when it entered the planning phases of an architectural project. Includes advice on preparing contracts.
Hilberry, John D. "Plan to Expand." Museum News 69.4 (July/August 1990): 51-54.
Brief overview of important components in an institution's planning process for building; written by an architect knowledgeable about and sympathetic to the full spectrum of functions of buildings and institutions that hold collections. Applicable to libraries with minor changes of detail.
Hilberry, John D. "Hiring an Architect? Begin By Determining Exactly What Services You Require." Museum News 69.4 (July/August 1990): 54.
The author, an architect, offers good advice when choosing architectural services.
Hilberry, John D., and Associates. "Museum Storage Design Checklist." Andover, MA: Northeast Document Conservation Center, 1994.
Available as single leaflets by contacting NEDCC, (978) 470-1010.
Hilberry, John D. "Architectural Design Considerations." In Storage of Natural History Collections: A Preventive Conservation Approach. Vol. I. Eds. Carolyn L. Rose, Catharine A. Hawks, and Hugh H. Genoways, 103-22. Iowa City, Iowa: Society for the Preservation of Natural History Collections, 1995.
This useful discussion should assist in developing appropriate criteria for preservation storage environments, including information on space planning. A useful "Storage Design Checklist" is appended.
Hilberry, John D. "The Building Design and Construction Process." In Storage of Natural History Collections: A Preventive Conservation Approach. Vol. I. Eds. Carolyn L. Rose, Catharine A. Hawks, and Hugh H. Genoways. Iowa City, Iowa: Society for the Preservation of Natural History Collections, 1995, pp. 43-49.
Overview of who makes up the project team, and the various stages of a building project.
Hilberry, John D. "What Architects Need to Know, and Don't Want to Hear." Museum News 61.5 (June 1983): 54-61. Hilberry:
". . . an article that I wrote some time ago, but that clients and prospective clients have found helpful."
Hoke, John Ray, Jr., ed. Architectural Graphic Standards. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1994. 9th ed.
1998 Supplement also available. The architect's standard reference for over 60 years, now available in CD-Rom. See especially sections on building types.
Holt, Raymond. Wisconsin Library Building Project Handbook. Madison, WI: Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, 1990. Larsen:
"The standard text for public library planning. Does not cover specific preservation topics, but is an essential tool for good building design. Partially updated by Anders C. Dahlgren with "Public Library Space Needs: A Planning Outline /1998," available at http://www.dpi.state.wi.us/dlcl/pld/plspace.html (March 1998)."
Hookham, Francis. "Preservation Factors in the Design of New Libraries: An Architect's Viewpoint." In Conservation and Preservation in Small Libraries. Eds. Nicholas Hadgraft and Katherine Swift. Cambridge, England: Parker Library Publications, 1994, pp. 70-73. Introduction:
"This paper touches on a few factors from the architect's point of view, concerning the [adaptation] of old buildings for library purposes, and the construction of new libraries......"
Leighton, Philip D., and David C. Weber. Planning Academic and Research Library Buildings, 2nd ed. Chicago: American Library Association, 1986. Lull:
"Although this book is focused on libraries, the discussions of the planning process are helpful on any project. The book is not organized as a reference so it must be read from cover to cover. This volume contains a good section on lighting. A third edition is expected to be published in 1999."
Leuder, Dianne C., and Sally Webb. Administrator's Guide to Library Building Maintenance. Chicago: American Library Association, 1992. Larsen:
"Concise and systematic treatment of all areas of building maintenance including HVAC, lighting, safety, fire detection and suppression, environmental quality, and disaster management. Should be required reading for all library administrators and trustees."
Lord, Gail Dexter, and Barry Lord, eds. The Manual of Museum Planning. London: HMSO, 1991.
An extensive guide to planning and managing design and construction from the museum's point of view. Preservation issues are included; specific climate recommendations need to be adapted to geography, economics, and recent research findings.
Lugano, Fred. "Fixing a Cold, Drafty House." Fine Homebuilding 105 (Oct./Nov. 1996): 92-97.
Excellent description of the mechanism of air infiltration, and various options for sealing and insulating existing spaces.
Lushington, Nolan, and James M. Kusack. The Design and Evaluation of Public Library Buildings. Hamden, CT: Library Professional Publications, 1990.
Divided into two parts, this volume covers planning and design, as well as postoccupancy evaluation.
Massachusetts Board of Library Commissioners. Your Library Construction Project: Some Print Resources at the MBLC Library. Boston, MA:MBLC, July 2003. Extensive bibliography with topics that include essential resources, accessibility, funding, and public and academic libraries. Available online at: http://mblc.state.ma.us/grants/construction/planning/mplcp_bib.php
McCarthy, Richard C. Designing Better Libraries: Selecting and Working with Building Professionals. Fort Atkinson, WI: Highsmith, 1995. Larsen:
"Provides methods and techniques for evaluating, choosing, and working with architects and contractors. Gives effective communication techniques to ensure library design and construction follow good library and preservation practice."
O'Bright, Alan W. "New Mechanical Systems for Historic Structures." CRM 15.6 (1992): 44-46. Kerschner & Baker:
"Excellent article comparing three climate control strategies for three different historic houses."
Oreszczyn, T., M. Cassar, and K. Fernandez. "Comparative Study of Air-Conditioned and Non-AirConditioned Museums." In Preventive Conservation: Practice, Theory, Research. Preprints of the Contributions to the Ottawa Congress, 12-16 September 1994. London: International Institute for Conservation, 144-48.
A study of the possible problems associated with the installation of air cooling systems in historic buildings.
Rose, William. "Effects of Climate Control on the Museum Building Environment." Journal of the American Institute for Conservation 33.2 (Summer 1994): 199-210. Abstract:
"Practical matters presented include: setting upper and lower humidity limits in the exhibition space; temperature and moisture distributions in a space and in a climate control zone; the winter and summer performance of mechanical equipment; instrumentation; and building monitoring. Finally, guidelines for climate control that are aimed at maintaining the museum building envelope are presented."
Thatcher Ellis, Rebecca. "Getting Function From Design: Making Systems Work." In Preservation of Library and Archival Materials, 3rd ed. Revised and expanded; ed. Sherelyn Odgen. Andover, MA: Northeast Document Conservation Center, 1999.
Detailed explanation of the procedures for start-up/commissioning, and ongoing operation that apply to all building projects. Special attention is paid to components affecting environmental control. Available through the NEDCC Web site, www.nedcc.org.
Thompson, Godfrey. Planning and Design of Library Buildings, 3rd ed. London: Butterworths, 1989.
Written for the librarian new at the task of creating or renovating a library. This detailed manual should be read by those involved with building projects.
Trinkley, Michael. Preservation Concerns in Construction and Remodeling of Libraries: Planning for Preservation. Columbia, SC: South Carolina State Library, 1992.
This manual will prove an extremely valuable resource for building projects where collection preservation is a concern. The author addresses topics that are often difficult to research, such as proper finishes, roof construction, floors, and the design of book returns. Useful appendices and bibliography. Contact the SC State Library, (803) 734-8666 for ordering information.
Sannwald, William W. Checklist of Library Building Design Considerations. 3rd ed. Chicago: American Library Association, 1997. Larsen:
"Although preservation concerns are not handled separately, issues related to proper collection preservation appear throughout this essential planning document."
Weber, Martin E., with F.G. Matero. Conserving Buildings: Guide to Techniques and Materials. New York: John Wiley, 1993. Swartzburg:
"A basic text on buildings conservation, with emphasis on assessing old and new technologies to be able to integrate them effectively."
Wilcox, U. Vincent. "Facility Management." In Storage of Natural History Collections: A Preventive Conservation Approach. Vol. I. Eds. Carolyn L. Rose, Catharine A. Hawks, and Hugh H. Genoways. Iowa City, Iowa: Society for the Preservation of Natural History Collections, 1995, pp. 29-41.
Good discussion on the need for proper space management in the planning stage of a building project, written from the perspective of a facilities manager. Describes the types of spaces needed in a workplace in terms of physical structure, utilities, cleaning, safety, security services, and pest control.
American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality, ASHRAE Standard 62-1989, 1989. (Supersedes ASHRAE Standard 62-1981). 62a-1990 Addendum to ANSI/ASHRAE 62-1989. Scope:
"This standard applies to all indoor or enclosed spaces that people may occupy, except where other applicable standards and requirements dictate larger amounts of ventilation than this standard."
American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers. 1995 ASHRAE Handbook: HVAC Applications. Atlanta, GA: ASHRAE, 1995. Scope:
"HVAC requirements for an extensive range of applications are covered, including descriptions of the equipment needed to create a specific condition." A new edition is expected in June 1999.
American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers. 1996 ASHRAE Handbook: HVAC Systems and Equipment. Atlanta, GA: ASHRAE, 1996. Scope:
"The 1996 HVAC Systems and Equipment Handbook [has] chapters on hydronic heating and cooling systems design; fans; unit ventilators; unit heaters; makeup air units, humidifiers; desiccant dehumidification and pressure drying equipment, air-heating coils."
American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Humidification and Dehumidification Control Strategies. Atlanta, GA: ASHRAE, 1996. Scope:
"Presents 10 papers from the 1996 ASHRAE Annual Meeting.... Topics include: control options for various humidification technologies; mechanical dehumidification control strategies and psychrometrics; six steps to follow that ensure proper humidification system design and control; field experience in residential humidification control with temperature-compensated automatic humidistats; controlling rotary desiccant wheels for dehumidification and cooling; maintaining temperature and humidity and non-humidity-generating spaces."
American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers. 1997 ASHRAE Handbook: Fundamentals. Atlanta, GA: ASHRAE, 1997. Scope:
"As the anchor for the Handbook Series, the Fundamentals volume covers the basic principles and data for the entire technology of the industry, including theories, engineering concepts and data on basic working materials. The most popular volume in the series, this edition has new chapters on Energy Resources, Control Fundamentals, and Building Envelopes." Includes new information for controlling humidity based on thirty years of empirical data of peak humidity loads.
Harriman, Lewis G., ed. The Dehumidification Handbook. 2nd ed. Amesbury, MA: Munters Cargocaire, 1990. Introduction:
"This handbook explains how and why to dehumidify air. It is written for the engineer who has a basic understanding of building heating and cooling systems, or who operates a building or process which is influenced by atmospheric humidity." Includes good information on basic concepts, use of psychometric charts, and load calculations.
Harriman, Lewis G., Dean Plager, and Douglas Kosar. "Dehumidification and Cooling Loads from Ventilation Air." ASHRAE Journal (November 1997): 37-45. Harriman:
"This article quantifies the moisture loads and heat loads from air infiltration over the course of an entire year for 239 locations in the United States. It shows that moisture loads outweigh heat loads by about 4:1 in all but desert and high-altitude climates."
Lafontaine, Raymond H. "Humidistatically Controlled Heating: A New Approach to Relative Humidity Control in Museums Closed for the Winter Season." Journal of the International Institute for Conservation - Canadian Group 7.1-2 (Spring 1982): 35-41. Conrad:
"Although dated, it is still good information for low-tech approaches to collections care in historic buildings and non-museum facilities."
Rose, William. "Effects of Climate Control on the Museum Building Envelope." Journal of the American Institute for Conservation 33 (1994): 199-210. Kerschner & Baker:
"A technical article analyzing how moisture moves through the building envelope. Humidity control that overrides temperature control during periods of extreme outdoor conditions is recommended to stabilize RH levels for collection artifacts."
Rose, William B., and Anton TenWolde, eds. Bugs, Mold & Rot II: A Workshop on Control of Humidity for Health, Artifacts, and Buildings, Nov. 16-17, 1993. Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Building Sciences, 1993. (152 pp., $35 from NIBS, 1202 L. St., NW Suite 400, Washington, D.C., 20005 [202/289-7800]). Ellen McCrady:
"[Papers from a] workshop by the Building Environment and Thermal Envelope Council (BETEC, part of NIBS) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The papers are...relevant to [the preservation] world...; some provide crucial, hard-to-find information. Almost all of them are technical and fact filled."
Sebor, Andrew J. "Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systems." In Storage of Natural History Collections: A Preventive Conservation Approach. Vol. I. Eds. Carolyn L. Rose, Catharine A. Hawks, and Hugh H. Genoways. Iowa City, Iowa: Society for the Preservation of Natural History Collections, 1995, pp. 135-46. Introduction:
"Critical issues in heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems, planning, design, and selection are discussed...." Good overview of types of system components and options.
Weintraub, Steven, and Sara J. Wolf. "Macro- and Microenvironments." In Storage of Natural History Collections: A Preventive Conservation Approach, Vol. I. Eds. Carolyn L. Rose, Catharine A. Hawks, and Hugh H. Genoways. Iowa City, Iowa: Society for the Preservation of Natural History Collections, 1995, pp.123-134. Introduction:
"....many methods are available that can provide some level of environmental control, are inexpensive and relatively simple to implement, and are capable of reducing the rate of environmentally induced damage to collections significantly."
ANSI/PIMA IT9.2-998."Imaging Media—Photographic Processed Films, Plates, and Papers—Filing Enclosures and Storage Containers."
ANSI/PIMA IT9.25-1998. "Imaging Materials—Optical Disc Media—Storage."
ANSI/PIMA IT9.23-1998. "Imaging Materials—Polyester Base Magnetic Tape—Storage."
ISO 5466:1996. "Photography—Processed Safety Photographic Films—Storage Practices."
ANSI/NAPM IT9.16-1993. "Imaging Media—Photographic Activity Test."
These standards should be consulted for information regarding the proper storage of imaging media. Standards can be ordered through the American National Standards Institute Web site, www.ansi.org.
Appelbaum, Barbara. Guide to Environmental Protection of Collections. Madison, WI: Sound View Press, 1991.
Basic information for those without technical training in the care of any kind of collection.
Calmes, Alan. "Video Tapes." In Storage of Natural History Collections: A Preventive Conservation Approach, Vol. I. Eds. Carolyn L. Rose, Catharine A. Hawks, and Hugh H. Genoways. Iowa City, Iowa: Society for the Preservation of Natural History Collections, 1995, pp. 395-400.
Describes the manufacture and proper care of valued videorecordings.
Carmody, John, and Peter H. Herzog. Energy-Efficient Operation of Commercial Buildings: Redefining the Energy Manager's Job. New York: McGraw Hill, 1997.
Provides practical methods for achieving energy efficiency, and introduces the basic concepts of building operation and performance.
Canadian Conservation Institute. "Storing Works on Paper." CCI Notes 11/2. Ottawa, ON: CCI, 1995. NLC:
"Covers preparation for storage, and optimum environmental conditions." To order, contact CCI, 1030 Innes Road, Ottawa, ON Canada, TK1A 0M5, tel. (613) 998-3721, fax (613) 998-4721.
Cassar, May. Environmental Management. London: Routledge, 1995. NLC:
"Provides guidelines for [a] strategic approach to environmental management. Includes select bibliography and list of sources to other information."
Christensen, Carol. "Environmental Standards: Looking Beyond Flatlining?" AIC News 20.5 (1995): 1-2, 4-8.
A full discussion of new standards for storing collections, based on research at the Smithsonian's Conservation Analytical Laboratory (CAL), allowing a wider range of relative humidity than previously recommended.
Conrad, Ernest A. "Balancing Environmental Needs of The Building, The Collection, and the User." In Abstracts of Papers Presented at the Twenty-Fourth Annual Meeting, Norfolk, Virginia, June 10-16, 1996, by the American Institute for Conservation. Washington, DC: AIC, 1996, pp. 15-18.
A six-part classification system is presented based on three major climate-control categories, including examples of the kinds of collections and/or use which could be considered for each type of space. This system is in wide usage as a tool in the balancing act often needed in historic house museums.
Conrad, Ernest A. "Energy Conservation Issues for Modern Buildings." In Preserving the Recent Past. Eds. Deborah Slaton and Rebecca A. Shiffer. Washington, DC: Historic Preservation Education Foundation, 1995, pp. 137-140.
Considers energy conservation in recent historic buildings. Relates building structures and systems to a range of twentieth-century influences and issues. Includes practical heating and ventilation tips.
Druzik, James, and Paul Banks. "Appropriate Standards for the Indoor Environment." Conservation Administration News 62/63 (1995): 1, 3-8.
Further discussion on CAL's environmental specifications.
Erhardt, David, and Marion Mecklenberg. "Relative Humidity Re-Examined." In Preventive Conservation: Practice, Theory, Research. Preprints of the Contributions to the Ottawa Congress, 12-16 September 1994. London: International Institute for Conservation, 1994, pp. 32-38. Kerschner & Baker:
"This paper presents results of materials research on museum objects conducted by the authors that leads them to the conclusion that many museum artifacts can safely withstand wider fluctuations in relative humidity than previously accepted by many conservators."
Foot, Mirjam M. "Housing Our Collections: Environment and Storage for Libraries and Archives." IFLA Journal 22 (1996): 110-14.
Good general discussion on the importance of a good environment, and the importance of balancing use of collections with preferred storage conditions.
Hansen, Eric F., Steven N. Lee, and Harry Sobel. "The Effects of Relative Humidity on Some Physical Properties of Modern Vellum: Implications for the Optimum Relative Humidity for the Display and Storage of Parchment." Journal of the American Institute for Conservation 31 (1992): 325-42.
Research results on the effects of different relative humidities on the physical properties of parchment. Abstract: "....a relative humidity of 30% seems optimum for such objects. At 30% RH, a cyclic variation of ±5% can be permitted with minimal effects of swelling and shrinkage."
Kerschner, Richard L. "A Practical Approach to Environmental Requirements for Collections in Historic Buildings." Journal of the American Institute for Conservation 31 (1992): 65-76. Scope:
"Ideal environmental conditions for the preservation of artifacts housed in a historic structure often differ from the ideal conditions for the preservation of the structure itself. It is important to consider carefully the preservation requirements of both the collection and the building when setting specific temperature and humidity standards and designating climate control systems."
McCormick-Goodhart, Mark H. "The Allowable Temperature and Relative Humidity Range for the Safe Use and Storage of Photographic Materials." Journal of the Society of Archivists 17.1 (1996): 7-21.
Describes the research leading to recommendations for cold storage to help ensure the long-term preservation of photographs.
Michalski, Stefan. "Relative Humidity: A Discussion of Correct/Incorrect Values." In ICOM Committee for Conservation: 10th Triennial Meeting, Washington, D.C., 22-27 August 1993, Preprints. Vol. 2. Ed. J. Bridgeland. Paris: ICOM Committee for Conservation, pp. 624-29. Kerschner & Baker:
"An excellent, understandable, detailed explanation of what RH levels are safe and what are not for a variety of materials."
Nugent, William R. "Compact Discs and Other Optical Discs." In Storage of Natural History Collections: A Preventive Conservation Approach. Vol. I, Eds. Carolyn L. Rose, Catharine A. Hawks, and Hugh H. Genoways. Iowa City, Iowa: Society for the Preservation of Natural History Collections, 1995, pp. 401-08.
Accurate description of various types of optical discs, including information on proper care and expected longevity. Extensive list of references may be useful for more in-depth research.
Reilly, James M. IPI Storage Guide for Acetate Film. Rochester, NY: Image Permanence Institute, Rochester Institute of Technology, 1993. Scope:
"The main purpose of the Guide is to help collection managers evaluate the quality of the storage environment they provide for their film." Includes a booklet, a two-sided Wheel, Time Contours for Vinegar Syndrome, and a "Time Out of Storage" Table. To order copies call (716) 475-5199 or fax (716) 475-7230.
Reilly, James M. Storage Guide for Color Photographic Materials. Rochester, NY: Image Permanence Institute, 1998. Scope:
"A 48-page book accompanied by a wheel of environmental conditions (a kind of circular slide rule), explains how and why color images fade, why they need special storage, and what can be done to make them last as long as possible." The cost of this publication is $20.00. Order forms can be found at the New York State Library web site at http://www.nysl.nysed.gov/libdev/storage.htm. Checks must be made payable to The State University of New York. Credit card orders can be placed through the Image Permanence Institute by calling 716-475-5199. The cost through IPI is $25.00 plus $3.00 for postage and shipping.
Reilly, James M., Douglas Nishimura, and Edward Zinn. New Tools for Preservation: Assessing Long-Term Environmental Effects on Library and Archives Collections. Washington, D.C.: Commission on Preservation and Access, 1995. NLC:
"Introduces the concept of the Time Weighted Preservation Index (TWPI), a new way to measure how temperature and RH changes affect the preservation quality of storage environments." Available by sending a check for $10 made payable to CLIR to: CLIR Publication Orders, 1755 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Suite 500, Washington DC, 20036-2124. If you wish to pay by Visa or Mastercard, please contact them by phone (202-939-4750), fax (202-939-4760), or e-mail (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Roosa, Mark. Care, Handling, and Storage of Photographs. International Federation of Library Associations, Core Programme on Preservation and Conservation, 1992.
Concise information on the care of a wide range of photographic materials. Includes an extensive bibliography and a list of applicable standards.
Sebera, Donald K. Isoperms: An Environmental Management Tool. Washington, D.C.: Commission on Preservation and Access, 1994. NLC:
"The isoperm method quantifies the effect of temperature and relative humidity on the life expectancy of paper-based collections." Available in full text at http://www.clir.org/pubs/reports/isoperm/is operm.html, or can be ordered by sending a check for $10 made payable to CLIR to: CLIR Publication Orders, 1755 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Suite 500, Washington DC, 20036-2124. If you wish to pay by Visa or Mastercard, please contact them by phone (202-939-4750), fax (202-939-4760), or e-mail (email@example.com).
Thomson, Garry. The Museum Environment. 2nd ed. Boston: Butterworths, 1994.
A comprehensive, advanced text for conservators and curators concerning the damaging effects on exhibits of light, humidity, and air pollution, and what to do to minimize damage. Available from Butterworth-Heinemann, 225 Wildwood Ave., Woburn, MA 01801, (800) 336-2665 or fax (800) 446-6520. Orders may also be placed through their Web site at http://www.bh.com.
Van Bogart, John W.C. Magnetic Tape Storage and Handling: A Guide for Libraries and Archives. Washington, D.C.: The Commission on Preservation and Access, 1995.
Report from the National Media Lab; contains the best and most current information on the long-term storage and care of magnetic materials. Available in full text at http://www.clir.org/pubs/reports/pub54/index.html, or can be ordered by sending a check for $10 made payable to CLIR to: CLIR Publication Orders, 1755 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Suite 500, Washington DC, 20036-2124. If you wish to pay by Visa or Mastercard, please contact them by phone (202-939-4750), fax (202-939-4760), or e-mail (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Vogt-O'Connor, Diane. Caring for Photographs: General Guidelines. Conserve O Gram Series No. 14/4. Washington, D.C.: National Park Service, June 1997.
Environmental conditions and recommendations for storage and handling of photographs are succinctly outlined. Available to non-NPS institutions and interested individuals by subscription through the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402, fax (202) 512-2250.
Vogt-O'Connor, Diane. Caring for Photographs: Special Formats. Conserve O Gram Series No. 14/5. Washington, D.C.: National Park Service, June 1997.
Environmental conditions and recommendations for storage and handling of materials such as cased photographs and glass plate negatives are outlined. See above for ordering information.
Wilhelm, Henry, and Carol Bower. The Permanence and Care of Color Photographs. Grinell, IA: Preservation Publishing Company, 1993.
Detailed, specific information on the storage of photographs, including black & white media. One of the best reference books available.
Wilson, William K. Environmental Guidelines for the Storage of Paper Records. NISO Technical Report (NISO-TR01-1995). Bethesda, MD: NISO Press, 1995. Scope:
"This report will help librarians, archivists, architects, and building and environmental engineers establish appropriate environmental guidelines for the storage of records in libraries, archives, and other storage facilities. Recommended requirements for specific storage conditions such as temperature, relative humidity, light and air pollutants are given. A detailed review of the technical and scientific literature which led to the conclusions presented by the author is also included." Available from NISO Press, P.O. Box 338, Oxon Hill, MD, 20750-0338; 1-800-282-NISO. This and other publications can also be ordered through their Web site at www.niso.org.
Canadian Conservation Institute. "A Light Damage Slide Rule." CCI Notes 2.6. Ottawa, ON: CCI, 1989. NLC:
"Tool to assist with decision-making on lighting of art and artifacts." To order, contact CCI, 1030 Innes Road, Ottawa, ON Canada, TK1A 0M5, (613) 998-3721, fax (613) 998-4721.
Colby, Karen M. "A Suggested Exhibition Policy for Works of Art on Paper." Journal of the IIC-CG 17 (1992): 3-17. Also available at http://www.lightresource.com/policy1.html. Abstract:
"This paper examines a new exhibition policy for works of art on paper as developed by the conservation department at the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts in 1991. It focuses specifically on the recommended exposure times to which works can be reasonably subjected in light of the Museum's concurrent but sometimes conflicting mandates of preservation and display. The policy involves 3 sensitivity categories and proposes an annual limit (which can be converted into a bi-annual or tri-annual limit as required). Category lists have been prepared which classify most materials in the works on paper class to assist the conservator with accurate classification of works of art into appropriate categories."
Florentine, Frank A. "The Next Generation of Lights: Electrodeless." WAAC Newsletter 17.3 (Sept. 1995): 12-13.
Considers continuing research and design of lights that can be used for exhibition of collections.
Freifeld, Roberta, and Caryl Masyr. Space Planning. Washington, D.C.: Special Libraries Association, 1991.
Includes useful information on lighting treatments.
Layman, David. "Lighting Design Terminology: A Mini-Lesson." Exhibitionist 13.1
(Spring 1994): 46-47.
Lists the key terms that need to be defined when investigating lighting options.
Lull, William P., with Paul N. Banks. Conservation Environment Guidelines for Libraries and Archives. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Council of Archives, 1995.
An excellent resource for specifying environmental conditions for collections care, including information on light sources and treatments. A new edition is planned for 1999 from the New York State Library. Ordering information will be available through their Web site, http://www.nysl.nysed.gov/.
Michalski, Stefan. "New Lamps for Museum Lighting." CCI Newsletter 17 (March 1996): 7-8.
Explains the new types of lamps manufactured for sale in Canada for improved
National Park Service and the American Institute for Conservation. Museum Exhibit Lighting. Presession to the AIC 25th Annual Meeting, San Diego, CA, June 9-10, 1997.
Broad range of current, in-depth articles covering visual perception, light sources, lighting treatments, and control of UV energy. To order, contact AIC at 1717 K St. NW, Ste. 301, Washington, D.C. 20006, tel. (202) 452-9545, fax (202) 452-9328, or e-mail InfoAIC@aol.com.
Nicholson, Catherine. "What Exhibits Can Do To Your Collection." Restaurator 13.3 (1992): 95-113. Scope:
"Possible exhibition-related hazards are discussed including light damage, exposure to gaseous pollutants and increased fluctuation of temperature and relative humidity, and physical damage from handling, inadequate support, vibration and transport. Guidelines are suggested for the safe light exposure of archival and library materials."
Weintraub, Steven. "Creating and Maintaining the Right Environment." In Caring for Your Collections. Ed. Harriet Whelchel. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1992, pp. 18-29.
A good introductory article on the importance of climate control, including a useful section on lighting.
Weintraub, Steven. "Technics: Natural Light in Museums: An Asset or a Threat." Progressive Architecture 5 (1990): 49-54.
Written for the lighting designer; discusses the compromises to be considered when balancing the use of natural light with conservation concerns.
EPA and NIOSH. Building Air Quality: Guide for Building Owners & Facility Managers. Washington, D.C.: Environmental Protection Agency, 1992. NLC:
"Information on indoor air quality problems and how to correct or prevent them." To order, contact the National Center for Environmental Publications and Information, PO Box 42419, Cincinnati, OH 45242-2419, (800) 490-9198, fax (513) 489-8695. See the EPA Web site for further information, http://www.epa.gov.
Grzywacz, Cecily M. "Air Quality Monitoring." In Storage of Natural History Collections: A Preventive Conservation Approach. Vol. I. Eds. Carolyn L. Rose, Catharine A. Hawks, and Hugh H. Genoways. Iowa City, Iowa: Society for the Preservation of Natural History Collections, 1995, pp. 197-209.
Describes methods of detecting pollutants in the museum environment, such as acetic acid and formaldehyde. A list of materials and suppliers is appended.
Leeke, John. "Detecting Moisture." Old House Journal 24.3 (1996): 42-45. Kerschner & Baker:
"The basic equipment and techniques used to identify moisture problems in old buildings are discussed."
Lull, William P., with Paul N. Banks. Conservation Environment Guidelines for Libraries and Archives. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Council of Archives, 1995.
Specifies environmental conditions for collections care. The monitoring section is the part most often referenced and reproduced. Good section on the design and construction process. Out of print; a new edition is planned for 1999 from the New York State Library. Ordering information will be available through their Web site, http://www.nysl.nysed.gov/
Weintraub, Steven, and Sara J. Wolf. "Environmental Monitoring." In Storage of Natural History Collections: A Preventive Conservation Approach. Vol. I. Eds. Carolyn L. Rose, Catharine A. Hawks, and Hugh H. Genoways. Iowa City, Iowa: Society for the Preservation of Natural History Collections, 1995, pp. 187-96.
Covers monitors such as humidistats, thermostats, and dataloggers; calibration; measuring light levels; and pollutants.
Artim, Nick. "An Introduction to Automatic Fire Sprinklers." WAAC Newsletter 15.3 (September 1994): 20-27, and 17.2 (May1995): 23-28.
Explains the various types of sprinkler systems and their advantages and disadvantages.
Artim, Nick. "An Introduction to Fire Detection, Alarm, and Automatic Fire Sprinklers." In Preservation of Library and Archival Materials, 3rd. ed., revised and expanded. Ed. Sherelyn Ogden. Andover, MA: Northeast Document Conservation Center, 1999.
Available through the NEDCC Web site, www.nedcc.org.
Federal Emergency Management Agency/Federal Insurance Administration. "Flood-Resistant Materials Requirements for Buildings Located in Special Flood Hazard Areas." Technical Bulletin 2-93. Washington, D.C.: FEMA/FIA, 1993.
For anyone building or renovating in areas at risk of flooding. Prepared in accordance with the National Flood Insurance Program. Available from FEMA/FIA Office of Reduction, Technical Standards Division, 500 C St., SW, Room 417, Washington, D.C., 20472.
Fennelly, Lawrence J., ed. Effective Physical Security. 2nd ed. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1997.
An invaluable resource detailing the essential components of a secure facility, including security hardware and systems.
Fortson, Judith. Disaster Planning and Recovery: A How-To-Do-It-Manual for Librarians and Archivists. New York: Neal Schuman Publishers, 1992. How-To-Do-It Manuals for Libraries, No. 21.
Excellent, comprehensive guidance for emergency preparedness, risk prevention, response, and recovery. Includes resource lists, bibliography, and decision tree. [If you can buy only one emergency planning guide, this should be it.]
Frens, Dale H. "Specifying Temporary Protection of Historic Interiors During Construction and Repair." Preservation Tech Note.Washington, D.C.: National Park Service. 1993.
A must for anyone considering renovation when buildings and collections are at high risk of fire damage. Copies can be obtained from Heritage Preservation Services Information Desk (2255), National Center for Cultural Resource Stewardship and Partnerships, PO Box 37127, Washington, D.C., 20013-7127, 202-343-9538, or via email: email@example.com.
Kahn, Miriam. Disaster Prevention and Response for Special Libraries: An Information Kit. Washington: Special Libraries Association, 1995. Trinkaus-Randall:
"Includes steps for writing a disaster plan and suggestions on preventing disasters and emergencies, especially for [small] operations."
Kahn, Miriam. First Steps for Handling & Drying Water-Damaged Materials. Columbus, OH: MBK Consulting, 1994. Trinkaus-Randall:
"Includes procedures and remedies for dealing with water-damaged materials." Clear, usable graphic format presented in 3-ring binder makes it especially useful during an emergency. For copies, contact MBK Consulting, Miriam B. Kahn, 60 N. Harding Rd., Columbus, OH 43209-1524, (614) 239-8977, or e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Keller, Steve. "Securing Historic Houses and Buildings." Steven R. Keller and Associates, Inc., 1994. http://www.horizon-usa.com/architect/histhous.txt (August 1998).
Practical advice provided courtesy of a security consulting firm which specializes in museums, cultural institutions, and historic sites. See also the following two articles.
Keller, Steve. "The Most Common Security Mistakes That Most Museums Make." Steven R. Keller and Associates, Inc., 1994. http://www.horizon-usa.com/horizon/common.txt (August 1998).
Keller, Steve. "The Most Common Security Mistakes That Most Museum Architects Make." Steven R. Keller and Associates, 1994. http://www.horizon-usa.com/horizon/archmst.txt (August 1998).
Liston, David, ed. Museum Security and Protection. ICOM and the International Committee on Museum Security. New York: Routledge Inc., 1993.
An essential, detailed tool for protecting any building from threats of theft, vandalism, etc. Detailed lists, checklists, and guidelines throughout.
Motylewski, Karen. "Protecting Collections During Renovation." In Preservation of Library and Archival Materials. 3rd ed., rev. and expanded. Ed by Sherelyn Odgen. Andover, MA: Northeast Document Conservation Center, 1999. Online. Available through the NEDCC Web site, www.nedcc.org.
National Fire Protection Association. NFPA 909: Standard for the Protection of Cultural Resources Including Museums, Libraries, Places of Worship, and Historic Properties (Item No. 90997). 1997 edition; NFPA 914: Recommended Practice for Fire Protection in Historic Structures (Item No. 91494). 1994 edition; Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association.
Contact them at 1 Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02269-9101, (617) 770-3000, or order through their Web site, http://www.nfpa.org. These standards discuss the causes, prevention, detection, and suppression of fire in libraries, museums, archives, and historic structures. They contain descriptions and standards for fire detection/suppression equipment, synopsis of the role of the institution's staff in fire protection, and a bibliography of resources. Each includes useful self-inspection checklists.
National Fire Protection Association. NFPA 232: Standard for the Protection of Records, 2000 edition. (Item # 23200). Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, 2000. Scope:
"This revised edition of NFPA 232A outlines the latest fire safety requirements for file rooms and records centers, as well as vaults and archival storage of records, including protection equipment such as containers and safes for vital records". Contact them at 1 Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02269-9101, (617) 770-3000, or order through their Web site, http://www.nfpa.org.
Trinkaus-Randall, Gregor. Protecting Your Collections; A Manual of Archival Security. Chicago: The Society of American Archivists, 1995.
Practical considerations for protecting collections from disaster and theft. Informative section on physical security.
Wilson, J. Andrew. "Fire Protection." In Storage of Natural History Collections: A Preventive Conservation Approach. Vol. I. Eds. Carolyn L. Rose, Catharine A. Hawks, and Hugh H. Genoways. Iowa City, Iowa: Society for the Preservation of Natural History Collections, 1995, pp. 57-72
Comprehensive discussion of all aspects of fire protection for cultural institutions, including disaster planning, prevention and reaction to fire, as well as building design considerations.
ANSI/NISO Z39.73-1994. Single-Tier Bracket Shelving.
Essential information on the specifications and installation of library shelving. Standards can be ordered through the American National Standards Institute Web site, www.ansi.org.
Bright, Franklyn. Planning for a Movable Compact Shelving System. Chicago: American Library Association, 1991.
Invaluable advice and technical information regarding the installation of compact shelving.
Brown, Carol R. Planning Library Interiors: The Selection of Furnishings for the 21st Century. Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press, 1995. Oryx:
"The updated and revised edition reveals how to comply with the latest government regulations while creating and furnishing inspiring and practical areas. The author discusses how to plan for electronic equipment and create a goals-and-objectives statement for a library planning project. Other topics covered include creating inviting and suitable children's areas, selecting the proper furniture for work areas and electronic equipment, and coordinating computers with power and data distribution."
Burkhardt, Joanna M. "Do's and Don'ts for Moving a Small Academic Library." College & Research Libraries News. 59.7 (July/August 1998): 499-503.
Provides practical suggestions for the planning stages and process of moving a collection.
Hatchfield, Pamela. "Wood and Wood Products." In Storage of Natural History Collections: A Preventive Conservation Approach. Vol. I. Eds. Carolyn L. Rose, Catharine A. Hawks, and Hugh H. Genoways. Iowa City, Iowa: Society for the Preservation of Natural History Collections, 1995, pp. 283-89.
Discusses the risks associated with wood, along with options for its use. This should be read by those considering the installation of wooden cabinets or shelving in their repository.
Moore, Barbara P., and Stephen L. Williams. "Storage Equipment." In Storage of Natural History Collections: A Preventive Conservation Approach. Vol. I, Eds. Carolyn L. Rose, Catharine A. Hawks, and Hugh H. Genoways. Iowa City, Iowa: Society for the Preservation of Natural History Collections, 1995, pp. 255-67.
Excellent, detailed review of storage systems from a preservation perspective. Has an extensive, useful bibliography.
LAMA electronic discussion list provides a forum for those involved in moving libraries, including relocating collections, furniture, equipment, and personnel. Created by the LAMA Moving Libraries Discussion Group, established at the 1998 ALA Midwinter Meeting. To subscribe, send a message to email@example.com (subject line is blank) with the message: subscribe movlibs-L [first name, last name].
Sam, Sherrie, and Jean A. Major. "Compact Shelving of Circulating Collections."College & Research Libraries News. 54.1 (Jan. 1993): 11-12.
Brief research article on the effect of compact shelving on use of the collection.
Stolow, Nathan. Conservation Standards for Works of Art in Transit and on Exhibition. Paris: UNESCO, 1979.
A standard reference work for the safe movement of collections. Good information on case construction.
Thorpe, Valerie, and Colleen Wilson. "Moving the Collections at the Royal British Columbia Museum." In Preventive Conservation: Practice, Theory, Research. Preprints of the Contributions to the Ottawa Congress, September 1994. London: International Institute for Conservation, 1994, pp. 48-52.
Describes how the Royal BC Museum found solutions to moving their collections and permanently upgrading storage enclosures and furnishings. Although specimens and artifacts were involved, the philosophy behind the process makes worthwhile reading.
von Endt, David W., W. David Erhardt, and Walter R. Hopwood. "Evaluating Materials Used for Constructing Storage Cases." In Storage of Natural History Collections: A Preventive Conservation Approach. Vol. I. Eds. Carolyn L. Rose, Catharine A. Hawks, and Hugh H. Genoways. Iowa City, Iowa: Society for the Preservation of Natural History Collections, 1995, pp. 269-82.
Concerns choosing finishes for cases or built shelving.
Wells, Mariana S., and Rosemary Young. Moving and Reorganizing a Library. Brookfield, VT: Ashgate Publishing Company, 1997. AN:
"Throughout the book, the authors do an excellent job of balancing the quality of information while keeping it brief and concise."
White, Kris A., and Glenn S. Cook. "Round 'Em Up, Move 'Em Out: How to Move & Preserve Archival Materials." Conservation Administration News 57 (April 1994): 16-17.
Short report on moving collections describes brief hands-on solutions to transporting collections.
Conrad, Ernest A. Landmark Facilities Group, Inc., East Norwalk, CT. All Conrad annotations provided through personal correspondence with NEDCC, November 1998.
Fitzgerald, John D., Jr. "Reviews," Abbey Newsletter 22.1 (1998): 10.
Harriman, Lew. Mason-Grant Consulting, Portsmouth, NH. All Harriman annotations provided through personal correspondence with NEDCC, November 1998.
Kerschner, Richard L., and Jennifer Baker. "Practical Climate Control: A Selected, Annotated Bibliography." http://palimpsest.stanford.edu/byauth/kerschner/ccbiblio.html (December 1998). All Kerschner and Baker annotations in this leaflet are taken from this compilation.
Larsen, Anne. Associate Library Building Consultant, Massachusetts Board of Library Commissioners, Boston, MA. All Larsen annotations provided through personal correspondence with NEDCC, November 1998.
Lull, William P., with Paul N. Banks. Conservation Environment Guidelines for Libraries and Archives. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Council of Archives, 1995: 96. This annotation is for the work by Leighton only. All other annotations provided through personal correspondence with NEDCC, November 1998.
McCrady, Ellen. "Reviews," Abbey Newsletter 18.8 (December 1994): 117.
National Library of Canada (NLC). Chapter 5, "Environmental Control." Revised 1996-12-11. http://www.nlc-bnc.ca/resource/presv/ebibl5.htm (August 1998). All NLC annotations in this leaflet are taken from this bibliography.
Swartzburg, Susan G. Conservation Administration News 56 (Jan. 1994): 28.
Trinkaus-Randall, Gregor.Collection Management/Preservation Specialist, Massachusetts Board of Library Commissioners, Boston, MA. All Trinkaus-Randall annotations provided through personal correspondence with NEDCC, November 1998.
The author would like to thank Anne Larsen and Gregor Trinkaus-Randall, Massachusetts Board of Library Commissioners; Lew Harriman, Mason-Grant Consulting; Ernest Conrad, Landmark Facilities Group, Inc.; William Lull, Garrison/Lull Inc.; and John D. Hilberry, John Hilberry Museum Consulting, for their kind assistance and expert advice with preparing this bibliography. NEDCC also gratefully acknowledges the previous work of Karen Motylewski in preparing this bibliography.
Written by Karen E. Brown